Natural Skincare Ingredients Categories: Vitamins

Organic, Cold Pressed, Vitamin B-3 (Niacinamide)

• Improves Texture & Tone, Reduces Fine Lines
• Helps Reverse UV Damage

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Vitamin B-3 (Wikipedia)
Niacin
Kekulé, skeletal formula of niacin
Ball and stick model of niacin
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Pyridine-3-carboxylic acid
Other names
Nicotinic acid (INN)
Bionic
Vitamin B3
Vitamin PP
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet B00073
109591
ChEBI
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.401
EC Number 200-441-0
3340
KEGG
MeSH Niacin
RTECS number QT0525000
UNII
Properties
C
6
NH
5
O
2
Molar mass 123.1094 g mol−1
Appearance White, translucent crystals
Density 1.473 g cm−3
Melting point 237 °C; 458 °F; 510 K
18 g L−1
log P 0.219
Acidity (pKa) 2.0,4.85
Isoelectric point 4.75
1.4936
0.1271305813 D
Thermochemistry
−344.9 kJ mol−1
−2.73083 MJ mol−1
Pharmacology
C04AC01 (WHO) C10AD02 (WHO)
License data
Intramuscular, Oral
Pharmacokinetics:
20–45 min
Hazards
Irritant Xi
R-phrases (outdated) R36/37/38
S-phrases (outdated) S26, S36
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oilHealth code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentineReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 193 °C (379 °F; 466 K)
365 °C (689 °F; 638 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and is, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Together with nicotinamide it makes up the group known as vitamin B3 complex. It has the formula C
6
H
5
NO
2
and belongs to the group of the pyridinecarboxylic acids.

Medication and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat high blood cholesterol and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin is provided in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods and meat from various animal sources. Some countries require its addition to grains.

This colorless, water-soluble solid is a derivative of pyridine, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the 3-position. Other forms of vitamin B3 include the corresponding amide nicotinamide ("niacinamide"), where the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group (CONH
2
), as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters. Nicotinic acid and niacinamide are convertible to each other with steady world demand rising from 8,500 tonnes per year in the 1980s to 40,000 in recent years.

Niacin cannot be directly converted to nicotinamide, but both compounds are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) in vivo. NAD converts to NADP by phosphorylation in the presence of the enzyme NAD+ kinase. NADP and NAD are coenzymes for many dehydrogenases, participating in many hydrogen transfer processes. NAD is important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol, as well as cell signaling and DNA repair, and NADP mostly in anabolism reactions such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. High energy requirements (brain) or high turnover rate (gut, skin) organs are usually the most susceptible to their deficiency.

Niacin supplementation has not been found useful for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in those already on a statin, but appears to be effective in those not taking a statin. Although niacin and nicotinamide are identical in their vitamin activity, nicotinamide does not have the same pharmacological effects (lipid modifying effects) as niacin. Nicotinamide does not reduce cholesterol or cause flushing. As the precursor for NAD and NADP, niacin is also involved in DNA repair.

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